Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Development or environmental injustice Essay Example for Free

Development or environmental injustice Essay What does it really take to experience development? What are the defining criteria for development? Is development quantitatively measured or qualitatively evaluated? What are the key indicators of a developing or developed country? The answers depend on the person’s priority and preference. The expansion of metropolitan areas has been referred to as urban development by those who are after the material indicators of development- high rise buildings, wider highways, more cars and more parks. For those who are concerned with the long-term environmental and health effects of urbanization, they call it urban sprawl. For the purpose of having a common point of reference, let me use 1Dr. Howard Frumkin’s definition of urban sprawl: â€Å"the complex pattern of land use, transportation and social and economic development. † This complex pattern requires the extension of urban areas to rural areas, and thus converting the latter to urbanized locality. Urbanization implies vast forest and agricultural lands to be converted to different land uses. Sad to say, the list includes recreational facilities and parks which, for investment and environmental considerations are to be of least priority. Extensive roads construction which provides spaces for suburban dwellers to drive a car just to buy a pack of cigarette in the next block, is not suppose to be of immediate consideration. Besides this qualitative indicators of poor urban sprawl considerations, there are environmental threats of urban sprawl that are needed to be evaluated and be given high priority by the development advocates, as it concerns life of the present and future generations. 2â€Å"Automobile has been a prerequisite to urban sprawl. † (J. E. Anderson) The most adverse effect of heavy reliance to automobiles is obviously air pollution. In the United States, 3about 25% of all trips are shorter than one mile of these, 75% are by car. Another related 4study revealed that only 1% of trips in the US are on bicycle and 9% by foot. Do these figures present impressive urban development rates for the US? I am afraid not because the Netherlands has 30% accounting for transportation on bicycle. These facts rather provide proofs that vehicles are the leading source of air pollution. Despite modern environmental standards, urban air quality remains to be greatly affected by the emission of air pollutants from transport. In the 5US alone, 30% of nitrogen oxide and 30% of hydrocarbon emissions are brought about by mobile sources. In addition, 5carbon dioxide emission, which is the end product of burning fuel such as gas, accounts for 80% emissions. Carbon dioxide is the major greenhouse gas, with global warming potential. Needless to explain, development should no be measured quantitatively, that is by the number of cars that are going to and fro the streets of the cities. Rather, development should be measured qualitatively, that how much does it contribute to the quality of life the residents are to experience when programs relative to urban sprawl are push through. Housing development is a part of urban sprawl, which requires forest fragmentation. 6Chet Arnold of the Center for Land-use and Research at the University of Connecticut said forest fragmentation occurs when â€Å"large, continuous forests are divided into smaller blocks, either by roads, clearing for agriculture, urbanization, or other human development. † This means that housing development requires animal populations in the cleared forests to be thrown out of their natural habitats. Destruction of natural habitats accounts for great loss of biodiversity, which results to ecological imbalance. I agree that man deserve to have decent life and part of it is having a more comfortable living. But humans are not the only residents of the earth. We also have to take into consideration the floras and faunas as part of biodiversity. Let us remember that earth creatures are dependent on each other. Humans, being given the capacity to think and understand over the lower forms of life should see things beyond material and short-term comforts that development brings. Urban sprawl in this context alone is clearly an environmental injustice. Water resources are not exempted from the list of natural resources that are directly affected by urban sprawl. As requisite of urban sprawl deforestation brings forth water pollution. This is besides the effects of pollutants that directly come from factories, sewage treatment plants and local wastes, which are typical to urbanized cities. Rainwater that runs through the deforested lands are not effectively absorbed and thus flows downstream. This process results to lesser groundwater recharge, then water supply shortage follows. Added to the list of negative effects of urban sprawl to natural resources are noise pollution, the heat island effect, soil erosion and the declining fertility rates of soils. The main point of all these is that urban sprawl is the root of many environmental injustices. Air pollution, deforestation, water pollution, soil degradation and the destruction of biodiversity are results of a chain reaction from a single step to what others refer to as urban development. What humans failed to do and still refuse to consider is the future. Development projects, of which urban sprawl is a major player, are focused on comforts and pleasures of today and shortly after tomorrow. The next generation should be taken into serious consideration. There are things that still can be undone, but there are things that cannot. Natural resources that were destroyed can still be replaced, but it takes a century to bring them back to where they used to be. By itself, there’s nothing wrong with development. What makes it undesirable is its planner to consider the future. REFERENCES 1. Frumkin, Howard. Urban Sprawl and Public Health. Public Health Reports. May-June 2002 issue. Volume 117. page 201 2. Anderson, J. Edward. Personal Rapid Transit and Urban Development. Retrieved from http://faculty. washington. edu/jbs/itrans/sprawl. htm on December 19, 2006 3. Koplan, JP, Dietz. Caloric Imbalance and Public Health Policy. JAMA 1999. 282. pages 1579-81 4. Pucher, J. Bicycling Boom in Germany: A Revival Engineered by Public Policy. Transportation Q 1997:51. pages 31-46 5. US Environmental Agency. National Emission Inventory. Air Pollutant Emission Trends. Current Emission Trend Summaries. Retrieved from http://www. epa. gov/ttn/chief/trends/index. html on December 19, 2006 6. NASA. Urban Sprawl: The Big Picture. Retrieved from http://science. nasa. gov/headlines/y2002/11oct_sprawl. htm on December 19, 2006

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

The Washington Monument Essay -- Architecture Monuments Construction E

The Washington Monument The Washington Monument, a memorial structure designed and constructed in the nineteenth century, signifies an important tribute to the prestigious role and achievements of our nation’s founding father. Ideas for such a monument first arose in 1783, by which time â€Å"the fame George Washington, Commanding General and first President of the United States, was assured in the pantheon of statesmen of the world† (1). It was during this year that the Continental Congress proposed an â€Å"equestrian statue† in honor of â€Å"Washington’s services and his unique role in the founding of the new Republic† (1). Despite the project’s popularity with the public, however, little action was taken following the suggestion until after the former president’s death in late 1799; and, even then, debate ensued as to the design and methods of funding. When construction finally began fifty years later, more negotiations developed within a wide range of aspects. Engineers argued over site location and an adequate foundation. Finances waned due to non-congressional funding, the nationwide Panic of 1837, and a general loss of faith in the project’s organizational capability. The sole supplier of marble struggled to meet the extensive demands of material needed in the latter part of construction. Political opposition (by the Know-Nothing Party) to the acceptance of foreign aid in funding the project led to radical events (namely, theft and seizure) that slowed progress for several years. And the Civil War resulted in the halt of construction altogether, creating two separat e building phases as the country dealt with internal turmoil. More important than the variety of obstacles these issues pr... ...ew York City. On each side of the capstone, the official record for the construction of the monument was engraved. â€Å"†¦The west face of the capstone read, â€Å"Corner Stone laid on bed of foundation, July 4, 1848. First stone at height of 152 feet laid August 7, 1880. Capstone set December 6, 1884; and the east face read â€Å"LAUS DEO (Ch. 5).† Both the north and south faces of the stone named the commission members and the key men involved in the completion of the Washington Monument. In conclusion, the lengthy process involved in constructing the Washington Monument was one that, despite its difficulties and setbacks, has achieved the project’s initial goal: the impressive structure stands in the Nation’s Capital as â€Å"a memorial †¦ worthy of the memory of George Washington. Works Cited: 1) 2.)

Monday, January 13, 2020

Kate Chopin’s the Awakening Essay

The Awakening, Edna Pontellier is caught by the contradictions between the way others see her and the way she sees herself. The novella is a story narrating her awakening and discovery of self. â€Å"In short, Mrs. Pontellier was beginning to realize her position in the universe as a human being, and to recognize her relations as an individual to the world within and about her. †¦ How few of us ever emerge from the beginning! † The narrator is remarking at Edna’s boldness and uniqueness as an independent woman on a quest for self-discovery. And the narrator also points out â€Å"How many souls perish in [the beginning’s] tumult! † which serves to predict the chaos that comes about as Edna’s awareness grows – and can also be read as a remark foreshadowing her death. The female role that involves bearing children and being a â€Å"perfect† wife is also an important aspect of the society represented in The Awakening. While this lifestyle suits someone like Adele Ratignolle, Edna finds it unbearable and oppressive. She loves Robert and he inspires her, but her awakening at Grand Isle was complex — She does not simply find a new love interest, she finds a new way of appreciating and living life. Robert is more of an excuse and an occupation rather than a full explanation for her transformation. Even though Edna’s awakening means she suffers from the resulting self-awareness, the year of joy and understanding that accompanies this suffering is worth more to her than a lifetime of the semi-conscious submission that defined her former existence. The years that are gone seem like dreams—if one might go on sleeping and dreaming—but to wake up and find—oh! well! Perhaps it is better to wake up after all, even to suffer, rather than to remain a dupe to illusions all one’s life. † According to Edna, to live with self-awareness offers an existence far richer than a life lived according to the restricting â€Å"illusions† that are imposed by the expec tations of others.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

The Stranger, My Understanding Of The Culture And...

Gabriela Meza December 5th, 2016 The Stranger Reflective Statement Through our class discussion on Camus’ The Stranger, my understanding of the culture and absurdist perspective of this book was furthered amplified. During our dialogue we discussed the French existentialist movement occurring in the 1940’s and how this directly influenced both Camus’ The Stranger and his essay on Sisyphus about absurdism. It was important to note the culture and setting in which Camus wrote this novel to further understand the character Meursault’s feelings of physical and emotional detachment to the world and the meaningless of life that this displayed. The philosophical movement of existentialism was a key factor when analyzing the culture of this book because of the controversy that the character Meursault causes in readers. We all agreed Meursault s absurdist attitude towards the world and detachment from everything emphasized the meaningless of life. We talked about how Camus intentionally created a character so true and claiming to his actions to signify this factor. The effect that absurdism had on this reading was tremendous. The fact that this book was written in a time where the absurd meaning of life and the emphasis of individual existence and choice became a movement makes it more clear to understand why Camus created such a detached character in Meursault. Understanding the ideology of how existentialists believe in owning to your own actions and the consequences andShow MoreRelatedThe Stranger By Albert Camus1411 Words   |  6 PagesThe novel The Stranger, written by Albert Camus, encompasses contemporary philosophies of existentialism and absurdism. Existentialist and absurdist philosophies entail principles regarding that one’s identity is not based on nature or culture, but rather by sole existence. The role of minor characters in The Stranger helps to present Camus’s purpose to convey absurdist and existentialist principles. The characters of Salamano and Marie are utilized in orde r to contrast the author’s ideas about contemporary